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how was central african republic formerly known?

how was central african republic formerly known?

At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. Alternative Titles: C.A.R., Central African Empire, République Centrafricaine Central African Republic, landlocked country located in the centre of Africa. The country is a former French colony. Civil tranquillity has yet to be established and parts of the country remain out of government control. His cousin, David Dacko, replaced him as head of Government. [64] Catherine Samba-Panza was elected as interim president by the National Transitional Council,[65] becoming the first ever female Central African president. Food crops are not exported in large quantities, but still constitute the principal cash crops of the country, because Central Africans derive far more income from the periodic sale of surplus food crops than from exported cash crops such as cotton or coffee. [90], In 2017, Central African Republic signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. President Bokassa declared himself President for Life in 1972 and named himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire (as the country was renamed) on 4 December 1976. [9], During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, and Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR. During the rainy season from July to October, some roads are impassable. [129] Government expenditure on health was US$20 (PPP) per person in 2006[123] and 10.9% of total government expenditure in 2006. With a length of 2,900 miles (4,700 km), it is the continent’s second longest river, after the Nile . [108] Much of the country is self-sufficient in food crops; however, livestock development is hindered by the presence of the tsetse fly. [40] Within a year, he declared the establishment of the Central African Republic and served as the country's first prime minister. In the 16th and 17th centuries, prior to French colonisation of central Africa in the 1880s, many tribes fled to the region in order to escape the slave trade. [citation needed]. The National Elections Commission declared Bozizé the winner with 64.6 percent of the vote to 35.4 percent for Ziguélé. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Eventually, Patassé came to suspect that General François Bozizé was involved in another coup attempt against him, which led Bozizé to flee with loyal troops to Chad. Bozizé established a broad-based National Transition Council to draft a new constitution, and announced that he would step down and run for office once the new constitution was approved. Bantu tribes dominated the region and traded into the Congo River basin. The reported financial successes of Leopold II's concessionary companies in the Congo Free State convinced the French government to grant 17 private companies large concessions in the Ubangi-Shari region in 1899. [124] [116], Presently, the Central African Republic has active television services, radio stations, internet service providers, and mobile phone carriers; Socatel is the leading provider for both internet and mobile phone access throughout the country. The Sao civilization is the earliest known civilizati… As of June 2014 it had regularly scheduled direct flights to Brazzaville, Casablanca, Cotonou, Douala, Kinshasha, Lomé, Luanda, Malabo, N'Djamena, Paris, Pointe-Noire, and Yaoundé. [12] The Bobangi people became major slave traders[when?] He exposed the continuing atrocities committed against Central Africans in Western Ubangi-Shari by such employers as the Forestry Company of Sangha-Ubangi. [68], The Central African Republic is a landlocked nation within the interior of the African continent. [123] There was only around 1 physician for every 20,000 persons in 2009. Western Ubangi-Shari remained under German rule until World War I, after which France again annexed the territory using Central African troops. A new constitution was approved on 28 December 1994 and promulgated on 14 January 1995, but this constitution, like those before it, did not have much impact on the country's politics. CAR’s high mortality rate and low life expectancy are attributed to elevated rates of preventable and treatable diseases (including malaria and malnutrition), an inadequate health care system, precarious food security, and armed conflict. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 20:28. On 4 December 1976, the republic became a monarchy – the Central African Empire – with the promulgation of the imperial constitution and the coronation of the president as Emperor Bokassa I. [44] The fight for Bambari in early 2017 displaced 20,000. [126], Malaria is endemic in the Central African Republic, and one of the leading causes of death. [16] Count Savorgnan de Brazza established the French Congo and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River from Brazzaville in an effort to expand France's claims to territory in Central Africa. CAR is one of the few African countries to have an African language as their official language.[91]. The latest attempts by the government of the Central African Republic to reach an accommodation with armed groups are a disheartening repetition of a failed formula. There is a region known as Central Africa which spans several different countries. Yes and sort-of. Archaeologists have found evidence of objects that date as far back as 100,000 years. In 1910, the area, then known as Ubangi-Chari, became incorporated into French Equatorial Africa, however, after WWII, the territory was granted its own asse… Which is the capital of Central African Republic? During the 16th and 17th centuries Muslim slave traders began to raid the region and their captives were shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Europe, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West African coast. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. [130], The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that human rights in CAR were poor and expressed concerns over numerous government abuses. Once European negotiators had agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the costly occupation, administration, and development of the territory it had acquired. The United Nations recognizes the southern portion, often called Western Sahara, as a non-self-governing territory. These groups eventually reached a peace deal with the Bozizé's government in January 2013 involving a power sharing government[12] but this deal broke down and the rebels seized the capital in March 2013 and Bozizé fled the country. It also alleged harsh and life-threatening conditions in prisons and detention centers, arbitrary arrest, prolonged pretrial detention and denial of a fair trial, restrictions on freedom of movement, official corruption, and restrictions on workers' rights. [119], The two institutions of higher education in the Central African Republic are the University of Bangui, a public university located in Bangui, which includes a medical school; and Euclid University, an international university. [125] Many births in the country are guided by traditional birth attendants, who often have little or no formal training. As of 2020[update], the CAR is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012.[10]. This situation left France without her much coveted outlet on the Nile. The Republic of the Congo is also known as Congo Brazzaville, or Little Congo. [12], Changes in government have occurred in recent years by three methods: violence, negotiations, and elections. [16] The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement. Dacko, in turn, was again overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981. In 1890–91, de Brazza sent expeditions up the Sangha River, in what is now south-western CAR, up the center of the Ubangi basin toward Lake Chad, and eastward along the Ubangi River toward the Nile, with the intention of expanding the borders of the French Congo to link up the other French territories in Africa. In May 2005, Bozizé won the presidential election, which excluded Patassé, and in 2006 fighting continued between the government and the rebels. [1] Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, and then later the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations. "CAR" redirects here. [2] Bananas arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet; they were also used in the production of alcohol.[when?] [110], Bangui is the transport hub of the Central African Republic. In August 1940, the territory responded, with the rest of the AEF, to the call from General Charles de Gaulle to fight for Free France. Many familiar names disappeared when the sun set on colonial Africa. In the second round, Patassé won 53% of the vote while Goumba won 45.6%. The next thirty years were marked by mostly small scale revolts against French rule and the development of a plantation-style economy. [36] In 1946 Barthélémy Boganda was elected with 9,000 votes to the French National Assembly, becoming the first representative of the CAR in the French government. In 1925, the French writer André Gide published Voyage au Congo, in which he described the alarming consequences of conscription for the Congo-Ocean railroad. After Bozizé seized power in 2003, the Central African Republic Bush War began with the rebellion by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR), led by Michel Djotodia. A Dacko became the official President of the Central African Republic after defeating Abel Goumba in an internal power struggle. [citation needed], Production of copper, salt, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region.[10]. UNESCO World Heritage, Les mégalithes de Bouar. The republic was restored, and Bokassa, who took refuge in Ivory Coast and France, was sentenced to death in absentia for various crimes, including cannibalism. Johann Hari in Birao, Central African Republic. Two years later, the French established an outpost at Bangui, and in 1894, Oubangui-Chari became a French territory. The process of democratization quickened in 1986 with the creation of a new political party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC), and the drafting of a new constitution that subsequently was ratified in a national referendum. [24] The new unity government that resulted was formed in January 2009. A year later, Emperor Bokassa crowned himself in a lavish and expensive ceremony that was ridiculed by much of the world. [114], The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity as there are few other resources for energy and power. 4. [50][51] About 15,000 people fled from their homes in an attack in May and six U.N. peacekeepers were killed - the deadliest month for the mission yet. [13] As of 2019[update], according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had the second-lowest level of human development (only behind Niger), ranking 188th out of 189 countries, and the country had the lowest inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), ranking 150th out of 150 countries. [74], The climate of the Central African Republic is generally tropical, with a wet season that lasts from June to September in the northern regions of the country, and from May to October in the south. Patassé also removed many Yakoma from important, lucrative posts in the government. However, Patassé, who was living in exile in Togo, could not be ruled out as a leader of a future uprising. International Religious Freedom Report 2006", Central African Republic: addressing the protection crisis, See list of official languages by state on Wikipedia, Country Profile – Central African Republic-Sports and Activities, "Central African Republic - TheSportsDB.com", "Rebels in the Central African Republic are filling the void of an absent government", "Gems, Warlords and Mercenaries: Russia's Playbook in Central African Republic", "Stuck in the 'recovery gap': the role of humanitarian aid in the Central African Republic", "Central African Republic | ForeignAssistance.gov", CAR: Food shortages increase as fighting intensifies in the northwest, "Central African Republic Executive Summary 2006", Central African Republic Peacebuilding Fund – Overview, "Peacebuilding Commission Places Central African Republic on Agenda; Ambassador Tells Body 'CAR Will Always Walk Side By Side With You, Welcome Your Advice, "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. History of Central African Republic: The Central African Republic (CAR) is located in the heart of equatorial Africa. Djotodia said that there would be a three-year transitional period and that Tiangaye would continue to serve as Prime Minister. Approximately 68% of girls are married before they turn 18,[137] and the United Nations' Human Development Index ranked the country 188 out of 188 countries surveyed. [55][56] They are accused of displacing 17,000 people in November 2016 and at least 30,000 people in the Ouham-Pendé prefecture in December 2016. The only major group not to sign an agreement at the time was the CPJP, which continued its activities and signed a peace agreement with the government on 25 August 2012. [83] More recent work from the Pew Research Center estimated that, as of 2010, Christians constituted 89.8% of the population (60.7% Protestant and 28.5% Catholic) while Muslims made up 8.9%. As of 2020 , the CAR is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012. What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. [115] The Central African Republic will likely be among the main winners after a global transition to renewable energies is completed as the country is ranked no. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. [5] The site of Gbabiri (in the Central African Republic) has yielded evidence of iron metallurgy, from a reduction furnace and blacksmith workshop; with earliest dates of 896-773 BC and 907-796 BC respectively. [107], The per capita income of the Republic is often listed as being approximately $400 a year, one of the lowest in the world, but this figure is based mostly on reported sales of exports and largely ignores the unregistered sale of foods, locally produced alcoholic beverages, diamonds, ivory, bushmeat, and traditional medicine. Of this limited calm will be high, warns Eleanor Beevor colonies, the Central Republic... 'S presidency was extended to a life term Ubangi-Shari was administered from Brazzaville, or similar agreements the... In 2011, Bozizé launched how was central african republic formerly known? surprise attack against Patassé, boycotted elections... Free and is compulsory from ages 6 to 14 km ), its... Following a swift and almost bloodless overnight coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumed power as President,., India ( 11.5 % ) a shadow over the legitimacy of adult. Was living in exile in Togo, could not be ruled out a... 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